Stifled voices, broken society

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Read Time:6 Minute, 41 Second
In Africa, we believe that the little chick that screams and wails when snatched by the eagle is not doing so because it thinks the mother can still save it; it does so in order to alert the rest of the flock and warn them of its plight, so that they do not suffer the same fate. Continue reading

About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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Benedicta Attoh (Author) on Codewit

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Read Time:2 Minute, 26 Second
Benedicta is currently the Development & Awareness Officer of the NCCRI (National Consultative Committee on Racism & Interculturalism), a Director of the Africa Centre and a member of the Louth African Women’s Support Group.  She is the Dundalk branch Coordinator of the Integration of African Children (IACI) in Ireland, a multicultural youth club.  She is an active member of several NGO’s, community and voluntary organizations working on the ground on issues of cultural diversity, integration, social inclusion and anti-racism since arriving Ireland in 2000.  She was an Advisory Board member of the NCCRI Synergy North/South Intercultural Initiative from early 2005 until her appointment as Development and Awareness Officer in June 2006.
 
Benedicta is a writer who has contributed extensively on anti-racism, diversity, integration and interculturalism, for example, she contributes a weekly column to the Dundalk Democrat, a regional newspaper in the North East and is a contributing Editor to Xclusive Magazine.  She directed a short documentary (5 minutes) highlighting the experiences of an African immigrant in Ireland which was nominated for an award in the category of short films in the prestigious Galway Film Fleadh in July 2006.  
 
She holds a degree in Business Education obtained from the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in Nigeria and an MSc in Future Communications obtained from the Dundalk Institute of Technology in Ireland.  She has spoken at several local, national and international conferences and seminars and was a member of the editorial committee of the NGO Alliance who successfully collated a Shadow Report on racism in response to the Irish Government’s first and second reports and presented same to the UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) in Geneva in March 2005. 
 
Due to her love for community service and her philosophy of servant – leadership as the driving force behind leadership, she stood as an Independent Candidate in both the Dundalk Urban and Louth County Councils at the local elections in June 2004.  Following her outstanding performance at the polls, mainstream political parties began to court Benedicta with a view to getting her to join them.  15 months after the elections, she decided to join the Labour party.  She is presently the elected Vice Chair for the Labour Party in County Louth in Ireland. 
 
Benedicta is a mature individual who is confident, committed, flexible and ambitious with good communication, administrative and organizational skills.  A self-motivated person, she is very determined and enthusiastic and strives to achieve the highest standards in whatever she undertakes.  She is astrong believer in equality and respect for the rights and values of others.
Benedicta loves writing, reading, music, travelling and meeting people.

About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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Nigerians have no reason to rush to UK

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Father of the Nigerian-born Damilola Taylor who was killed in London, Mr. Richard Taylor, in this interview with SEMIU OKANLAWON in East London, speaks on the murder of his son eight years ago, Continue reading

About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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Detention of Nigerian priest in Ireland provokes accusation of racism

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A SENIOR clergyman has branded Ireland a “racist society” after a Nigerian catholic priest on a visit to the country was arrested and subjected to a humiliating search by the Garda National Immigration Bureau (GNIB).

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About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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The nature and Forms of free masonry: Its historical origin, fraternity and thrust

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Read Time:23 Minute, 58 Second

In the Nacaths Journal of African Theology, Dr.Columbus and myself made a critical evaluation of cult and occultism in the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria. Among other things, we noted were that cult threatens normal campus life and social order.  Today, many people are asking these fundamental questions: Is Free Masonry a secret cult or a creepy fraternity? One would argue that Free- masonry as a fraternal organization shares some characteristics of a cult. Fraternity anywhere in the world and under whatever manner or shape it appears is the product of an awareness that are secretive and therefore contradicts everything that is transparent. Beginning from ancient Greek culture to Europe, America and down to Africa, creepy fraternities have made its impact felt in many parts of the world, especially in places where different forms of oppression exist side by side with adherence to Christian faith (Odeh, 1993). I am pleased to explore the nature, range, scope and influences of freemasonry as a fraternal organization.
There is no gain saying the obvious that the nature and forms of Free Masonry as a fraternal cult is dressed up and presented to members as solidarity group with the aim to attract patronage and fellowship. This increased fascination in the occults and fraternal organizations are now a major threat to our secular society. It is not surprising to find prominent citizens among its members. Members are found in all levels of world’s fiancés, politics, education, and vocations. Members are equally drawn from various professions: government officials, law makers, law enforcement agents, school teachers, office workers, scientists, government officials, artists, celebrities, taxi drivers, commoners to mention but a few.
Evolution, the basic tenet of free masonry and occultism which theosophy takes to its logical conclusion teaches that human mind can develop its paranormal powers (powers beyond the five senses) or ‘psychic’ powers by which it can achieve whatever it wants including godhood in life. Besides evolution and powers of the godhood, men and women join fraternal societies in order to spare themselves the troubles of social economy and political crises. The unbridled lust for power, wealth and fame are other reasons why people join these fraternal groups. People join these fraternal organizations and the arcane of the supernatural in search of solution to their multi-faceted problems.

Departure:

Free masonry is the oldest and largest world wide fraternity dedicated to the brotherhood of man under the fatherhood of a supreme being. Although of a religious nature, freemasonry is not a religion. This fraternity urges its members, however, to be faithful and be devoted to their own religious beliefs. Besides the beliefs of every cults and occultism, freemasonry projects two major manifestations of cults: Cults of strength in which the display of manliness and strength is the utmost objective, and religious cults orientated to the worship of the transcendental. Freemasonry is an esoteric society only in that certain aspects of their activities are private. Some masons state that freemasonry is not, in the 21st century, a secret society but a “society with secrets”. Some describe the organization as a “confidential” society in contrast to a secret society. Modern freemasons regard the traditional concern over secrecy as a demonstration of their ability to keep a promise and a concern over the privacy of their own affairs. Besides being an esoteric society, freemasonry is about world politics and world revolution. The Eugenics poster entitled “the relationship between Jews and Freemasons,” reads that Freemasonry is an international organization beholden to Jewry with the political goal of establishing Jewish domination through world-wide revolution. The map decorated with Masonic symbols (temple, square, and apron), shows where revolution first took place in Europe from the French Revolution in 1789 through the German Revolution in 1919.

Explication of Terms:

Freemasonry at its core is not a Christian organization. Like other “secret” organizations (Eastern Stars,) free-masonry appears to be harmless fellowship gatherings. This fellowship-gathering seems to take the form of a fraternal organization in whose members share moral and metaphysical ideals and in most of its branches requires members to conform to a constitutional declaration of belief in a Supreme Being or deity. Famous mysterious cults are in the like of Elusius adopted by Athens, Isis, and the cult of Egypt.  Similar fraternity of this kind is the mystery sorority of Dionysus for women (only included dancing, drinking, drugs, ecstasies, madness, Lesbianism, ritual shouting, and human sacrifice). Others are Cults of mythris, worshippers of Sybille who have always castrated themselves in the frenzy of the rites; Orphic cults centered on the singer Orpheus (emphasizing on purification, and the means whereby the soul might escape the body and ascend into the realm of the blessed). Freemasonry like other cults of the ancient world was based on Greek, Egyptian and Roman mythologies. Most of them are affiliated to the goddesses of the underworld like Dimetre, Dionysus, Sybile, Adonis, and Isis.

Who is a Mason?

Permit to say that a Mason is a man who professes a faith and uses the tools of moral and ethical truths to serve mankind. A Mason binds himself to the like-minded men in a brotherhood that transcends all religions, ethnic, social, cultural, and educational differences. In fellowship with his brother, a Mason finds ways in which to serve his God, his family, his fellowman and country. This is what their doctrine says in theory but in real life a Manson serves the forces of darkness, denounces his family and alienates his fellow countryman.

 What is Masonry?

Let us first clear the arena. A generally accepted definition of “freemasonry is an organized society of men, symbolically applying the principles of operative Masonry and architecture to the science and art of character building. The working tools and methods of the ancient craftsman are used to portray fundamental truths. Looking at the working tools of the entered apprentice, the 24-inch gauge and common gavel comes to mind. These were used by the operative mason to measure lengths, widths and heights and to break off the corners of rough stones, but a speculative mason is taught to use these to manage his time and to overcome the roughness of his character, thus making him a better person. When asked what Freemasonry means, a Minnesota Mason opined that Masonry is the following:
1.    In the lodge room, speculative Masonry is information and inspiration
2.    In the home, Masonry is kindness and fidelity.
3.    In business relationships, Masonry is honesty and veracity.
4.    In my daily works, Masonry is thoroughness and dependability.
5.    In social contracts, Masonry is moderation and self control.
6.    Toward the fortunate, Masonry is congratulations and best wishes.
7.    Towards the weak, Masonry is compassion and assistance.
8.    Towards wickedness, Masonry is rebuke and resistance.
9.    Towards the penitent, Masonry is forgiveness and another chance.
10.    Finally, towards God, Masonry is reverence, love and obedience.

Historical Excuses:

The historical origin and trust of freemasonry is complicated. It is complicated because its entire form and nature is fragmented and episodic. From pre-historic times, primitive man, who sought to understand the world of fraternity, represented cult and creation as a divine act.  In Greek culture, as well as the surrounding states that made up the ancient Mediterranean world like Malta, Alexandra and Byblos, several cults and fraternities developed, built around the mythologies of the people. In 666BC, the fraternity involving the sky (Uranus) penetrating the Earth (Eaea), who later gave birth to Aphrodite, developed with elaborate forms of ritualistic worship. Another cult and fraternity involving the illicit affairs between Adonis and Aphrodite evolved and culminated in the practice and institutionalization of sacred prostitution done by all women in honor of the goddess Aphrodite. At this time, the goals of cults and fraternities have been to celebrate the glory of sensual love and this was done in special temples built for the worship of Aphrodite. The Babylonians similarly had temples prostitutes dedicated to the goddess Ishtar.The first Grand Lodge of Freemasonry was the Grand Lodge of England (GLE). This Lodge was founded in 1717 when four existing London Lodges met for a joint dinner. At this dinner, the Lodge rapidly transformed into a regulatory body, which all English Lodges joined? Forty years later, the English Grand Lodges, referred as “the moderns” vied for supremacy with “Ancient” Grand Lodges. Both Lodges united in 1813 to form what is regarded as United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE). In 1725 and 1736, the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland were formed respectively.
In 1730s, Freemasonry was exported to the British Colonies in North America. However, After the American Revolution, independent American Grand Lodges were formed within the state boundaries. At this period, the desire was to establish a “Grand Lodge of the United States”, with George Washington as the first Grand Master. In 1728, the oldest jurisdiction in Europe referred to as “the Grand Orient de France (GOdF) was founded. In 1877, the Grande Loge Nationale Francaise (GLNF) became French Grand Lodge that is in amity with the united grand Lodge of England. One of the most learned and distinguished of the early English Freemasons was the Rev. Dr. George Oliver DD. Oliver wrote extensively on ecclesiastical antiquities and all aspects of speculative Freemasonry. In his detailed work, “the Revolution of the square”, Dr. Oliver narrated that the society adopted the temple of Solomon for its symbol because it was the most stable and the most magnificent structure ever existed, whether we consider its foundation or superstructure; so that of all the societies men have invented, none was ever more firmly united, or better planned, than the Mason. Early masons copied the temple worship and patterned it to their activities. This imitation allowed man sonic rituals to make use of the architectural symbolism of the medieval operation who worked on stones gravels and pebbles. Based on the above, speculative Mason was formed to adopt the temple symbolism to teach members moral and ethical lessons of the principles of “brotherly love, relief and Truth.” Speculative masons thereafter began to teach members “liberty, Equality and Fraternity.” Falconer (1997) write that the edifices which Freemason builds are nothing more than virtues or vices to be erected or destroyed; and in this case heaven only occupies their minds, which soar above the corrupted world. However, the temple of Solomon denotes reason and intelligence. It also denotes wisdom and speculative rationality. Stones (2007) acknowledges that these words are most succinct yet a comprehensive explanations ever given in respect of the foundation, purpose and symbolism of freemasonry. It typifies all aspects of the operative craft form which Freemasonry is derived.

Is Freemasonry a Social Fraternity or a Cult?

The term “cult” conjures up images of the burning of David Koresh’s branch Davidian settlement and the mass suicide of Jim Jones’s people temple devotees. Scholars on one hand, describe cult as a group that worship Satan, scarifies animals, and takes part in evil and bizarre initiations. The Christian definition of cult is a religious group that affirms one or more of the fundamentals of Biblical truths. Also, a cult is a group that teaches something that will cause a person to not be saved if they fail to believe. According to Orukpe (1988), secret cult is a group of people who share and propagate peculiar secret beliefs divulged only to members. Since certain aspects of freemasonry are private, it is logical to call it a “secret society.” or more accurate to call it an esoteric fraternity. The reason is because some Masons regard the traditional concerns over secrecy as a demonstration of their ability to keep a promise or a concern over the privacy of their activities. Cults and fraternities are all built around these inordinate desires for the mysterious and the uncommon. Hellenistic fraternities had secret doctrines and cultic rites (Warren, 2008). And by whatever name and in whatever guise it comes, secret cult is death.
Margaret Singer, a former adjunct professor of psychology at the University of California (Berkeley) identifies many traits characteristic of cults that are shared by fraternities and sororities that practice hazing; the control and isolation of new-comers. This is a creepy technique used by cults, fraternities and sororities. Cults, fraternities, hazing and Free-masonry are an association rapped in mystery. The semantic analysis of the Greek word (Muster ion) means “mystery”. The Greek word (Mueo) also means to be initiated into the mysteries of the fraternity. This noun had originally been used in reference to the secrets of ancient mystery cults. Based on exploratory research, I have come to understand that this noun was originally used by ancient fraternities during the 7thc through 4th centuries throughout ancient Greece which employed secret doctrines and secret ceremonies. Only those initiated into the fraternity knew the mysterious doctrines and secrets. In distinction from a religion, a cult is a group that claims to be Christian, yet denies an essential truth of Biblical Christianity. In distinction from a cult, free masonry could be compared to the order of the star Spangled Banner, a fraternal order referred to most commonly as the know nothing party. When this order came into existence Tyle (1992) articulated that they attempted to increase their appeal by converting their network of lodges into a conventional political organization, which they christened the “American Party.” Beyond politics, economics, and social life, there were pronounced tendencies towards the formation of organized groups like cults and Masons. Critics of Mason doctrines and teachings claim that mason and the cults share some similarities. Both groups teach that Jesus was not God and that salvation is not by faith alone. In some dimension, the two could be compared to the two most Christian cults-the Jehovah witnesses and the Mormons, the un-evangelistic sects with messages of distortions, deceptions and false doctrines. If asked I would say, these two groups have often been viewed with indifference because some of their beliefs and doctrines are ‘conjectures,’ some true, some false.

The Philalethes Society (Masonic Research Society):

Another name that describes philolethes society is the international Masonic research society. The name of this society is pronounced fill a (as in a-bate) lay thess with the accent on the third syllable-lay. Etymologically, Philolethes is derived from two Greek words, philo and alethes. These two coinages mean lover of truth. The philalethes society was founded on October 1, 1928, by a group of Masonic students. It was designed for freemasons desirous of seeking and spreading Masonic light. Contrarily, when accused as the brain behind the dreadful “Pirate Confraternity.” Professor Wole Soyinka (noble prize laureate) opined that they formed that group in 1952 at the University of Ibadan merely as a pressure group that seek the light and to protect students from being victimized by unruly lecturers (Columbus & Gerald, O 1994). In 1946, the philolethes magazine was established to publish articles by and for its members. The publication was to chronicle Masonic beliefs and principles of living. The purpose of this research society was to act as a clearing house for Masonic knowledge. It exchanged ideas and research problems confronting freemasonry, and passes them along to the Masonic world. Affiliates in the Philalethes society consists of members and 40 fellows, who are master Mason in good standing in a regular Masonic lodge anywhere in the world. Today, Philalethes society has members within 185 regular Grand Lodges.  

Reasons for Joining Freemasonry:

Ignorance of the mystery surrounding human life causes individuals to join the arcane of the blood thirsty associations. Ignorance of the plan of God causes believers to make wrong choices in life, to establish wrong priority, or wrong decision to live secretive lives unknown to their own flesh and blood. The same ignorance that surrounds the power of the Supreme Being causes the weak to solve problems incorrectly. People join fraternity and sororities because they emphasize the notion of “family”. Hank (1999) writes that appeal to recruit those who consider themselves in need of friends and potential dating partners, or who find themselves under stress in a new environment” cause individuals to join secret sects. Violence is the cult’s official policy. It is a policy that attracts membership and patronage. This is the more reason why the National association of the sea dogs (pirates confraternity) protects its members even it come to violence and confrontation. It is common that privileged, educated, wealthy people are more likely to join this culture of death for personal protection and promotional reasons. Most politicians join cults of death to protect their life and the lives of the immediate families. Similarly, bad politicians use the services of the cult groups particularly, the black Axe and Eiye fraternity for election purposes. They use their services to threaten normal social order by causing confusion and chaos in the cities, campuses and some private and government establishments.

Beliefs, Doctrines of Freemasonry

Freemasonry has enigmatic belief system. The Only belief requirement is that members must believe in the existence of a “supreme being” that includes the “gods” of Islam, Hinduism, or any other world religion. A characteristic of this society is that they are anti Scripture and anti Christian. The very essence of joining the Lodge requires Christians to ignore the exclusivity of Jesus Christ as the Lord and Savior. Members of freemansonry believe a person would be saved and go to heaven as a result of his good works and personal self-improvement. Members of Masonic lodge see the Bible as one of those several “volume(s) of the sacred laws.” They describe the Bible as an important book designed for members who claim to be Christians. It is without doubt that masons belief that the Bible is not an exclusive word of God, nor is it considered to be God’s sole revelation of himself to mankind. On one hand, they purport that the Bible is a good guide for morality, a symbol of God’s will which can also be captured in other sacred texts, like the Koran or Rig Vedas.
On the doctrine of God, members are challenged to believe in a deity so profound to man. Based on these foundations, masons invite people of all faiths, even if they use different names for the nameless one, or the ‘I am’ of the Judeo-Christian religion, while praying to the one God who is father of all. Be it as it may, freemasonry does not believe in Christology. They do not believe that Christ was God in human form (Matthew 1:18-24, John 1:1). Members doubt the doctrine of the deity of Jesus Christ and deny the exclusivity in Jesus Christ or the triune God who is the father, son, and the Holy Spirit. Members refuse to invoke the name of Jesus when praying. It is un-Masonic to mention the name of Yahweh or Christ while praying. It is even against their strict code to mention the name of Christ in the lodge. During Masonic rituals, the holy name “Jesus” is entirely omitted. A mason perceives Jesus Christ on the same level as other religious leaders, past and present. They challenge the teachings of the trinity. Masons deny the idea that Christ is the second person of the trinity (Matthew 28:19, Mark1:9-11). Although members challenge the Christology and Trinitarian nature of God, this fraternity does not believe that the Holy Spirit is an advocate. They doubt the divinity of Christ and claim that while he was on earth, he was fully human (Mark 4: 38, Matthew 4:2) and fully divine (John 20:28, John 1:1-2, Acts 4: 10-12). Members find it difficult to believe the rationale why Christians pray in Jesus’ name and proclaim him before others, regardless of offense to non-Christians (John14:13-14, 1 John 2:23, Acts 4:18-20).
This fraternity teaches that man is not sinful, just “rude and imperfect by nature.” According Masonic doctrine, humanity possesses the capacity of moving from imperfection towards total perfection. Therefore, moral and spiritual perfection lies within men and woman. The fundamental question that comes to mind is: why these moral and spiritual preoccupations? There seems to be a magical edge to the messages propounded by masons to her initiates that rings a note to people through the media. Many tend to believe it or accept it as true. Many have accepted their teachings and doctrines as a window through which reality and society are seen as they really are. For the Masons, oath and secrecy are the manifestation of real membership. Its importance cannot be overemphasized. Masons rise and fall by the oath and secrets they share. Take it away and you cut off the central nerve of their whole secret life and foundation. Olayiwola (1991) described this form of manifestation as a unique cultural behavior of making clients to live under sacred protection. Undoubtedly, Man sonic oath and doctrines compels members to belief:
-that salvation can be gained by man’s good works.
-that Jesus is just one of many equally revered prophets.
-that they will remain silent in the lodge and not talk of Christ.
-that they are approaching the lodge in spiritual darkness and ignorance when the Bible says Christians are already in the light, children of the light, and are indwelt by the light of the world- Jesus Christ.
-By demanding that Christians take the Masonic oath, Masonry leads Christians into blasphemy and taking the name of the Lord in vain.
-Masonry teaches that it’s G.A.O.T.U (Great Architect of the Universe), who masonry believes is the true God of the universe. This true God of the universe is representative of all gods in all religions.
-Masonry makes Christians abide in a Universal approach in its prayers, demanding a “generic” name be used so as not to offend non-believers who are Masonic “brother.”
-By taking the Masonic obligation, he is agreeing to allow the pollution of his mind, spirit, and body by those who serve false gods and believe false doctrine.
-By swearing the Masonic oath and participating in the doctrines of the lodge, Christians are perpetuating a false gospel to other Lodge members, who look only to Masonry’s plan of salvation to get to heaven. By their very membership in such syncretistic type organization, they have severely compromised their witnessing as Christian.
Masonry denies and contradicts the teachings of scripture. Based on the above, Masonry requires member to engage in activities which Scripture condemns. In a bid to carry out the belief and doctrine of this fraternity, members vie away from conventional moral standards; tolerate members who perform illicit and illegal acts committed behind close doors. Members encourage a near delusional feelings of invincibility; fail to heed an individual members moral qualms in the interest of group unanimity; put a newcomer in harm’s way with seeming disregard for that person’s well-being; and after a dangerous or fatal incident deny that they have erred, even in the face of clear evidence to the contrary. This is creepy and wearied. Christian should not join a creep society that denial the Christological foundation of the church and the Trinitarian nature of the God structure.

Some Notable Masons

The first world member of the Freemason was Fredrick, Prince of Wales. After Fredrick, notable Masons joined the fraternity. These Masons are:
Benjamin Franklin
James Monroe,
J.C Penny
Theodore Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
John Hancock
Duke Ellington
Sir, Alexander Fleming
Thurgood Marshall
Harry Truman
George Washington
John Wayne
Henry Ford
Gerald R. Ford
However, many other Masons are recognized by name, or by accomplishments. George Washington and thirteen other Presidents, eight Vice Presidents and forty-two justices of the supreme courts have been masons. Among other notable masons are Supreme Court justices and politicians, military personnel’s as well as business and market tycoons around the world. One can hardly argue against the fact that the word freemasonry has been bedeviled with secretive, myopic, lopsided, impoverished and somewhat attenuated consideration. I make bold to argue that freemasonry as secret fraternity is a clandestine sect. My argument is founded on the above logical analyses and not mere semantic cyclicism or philological verbosity.

Conclusion:

Any one who has been familiar with the unresolved state of affair with the forces of darkness should be aware that any fraternity by all standards is bloodshed and leads members on a course to a downhill. It leads members to plethora of problems and lingering frustrations. This is what Wole Soyinka did not foresee before modeling the national sea dog fraternity in the likes of Greek cults. Most Greek fraternities like the pirate confraternity limit communication, interaction/affiliations and sometimes avoid relationships with family, friends, relatives, classmates and others outside their evil chapter. Any association that makes these kinds of conditional relations with the above is creepy and wearied. A creep fraternity avoids speaking to non-members. A wearied fraternity does not find joy in helping family members. Members of wearied fraternity are wicked and have the bad blood to kill. It is creepy that an organization forbids one to take shower or change clothes, or wear clandestine apparel. It is creepy that an organization forbids individuals to be involved in the day-to-day lives of their families, church and social organization. It is wearied that members behave in such an extreme way to justify actions outside the range of normal social and human behavior.   Individual’s who joins creepy fraternity of this sort ends up to be confronted by social nomativism, moral contractism and hang on to poor rational negativism. All these have a yawning lacuna when the teachings of freemasony and other fraternities are challenged. Any fraternity enmeshed within the whole spectrum of false hope, false protection of initiates, and the alienation of immediate families, because of clandestine rituals and unaccountable sources of riches is creepy. It is nice to point out here that the teachings and messages of fraternities cannot survive without being confronted by moral accusations and judgment. The teachings of fraternities as many think is a mere myth and fantasies. They are exaggerations and misapprehensions associated with ordinary rituals that can never evoke belief for steal minded individuals. They are not comprehensible on the grounds of transparency on human behavior and interaction with the open society. The teaching and doctrines of fraternities cannot fit into the constitution of nature and God’s living relation to it, their necessity in the aim of revelation which they deserve (Encyclopedia, Britannica). Without prejudice, I have strong judgment that all fraternities have the capacity to suppress member’s common sense and rational thoughts. Freemasonry like other cults of death makes it hard for members to leave. They make quitting a complex reality for initiates and old cargos. A member who tries to quit can experience the same kind of post-traumatic stress disorder, disconnectedness, and angst that researchers and experts have associated with cult members who opt to leave their group (Hank, 2001). If this is the case, then fraternities are the devils constant reminder and activities at man’s world. They are signs of the devils intervention in a particular moment in the history of human life. These signs make fraternities a creepy association to join

References:

1. Columbus, O & Gerald, O (1994) Cult and Occultism in the Institution of Higher learning in Nigeria; Nacath journal of African theology

2. Hank, N (1999) Greek Letters Don’t Justify cult-Like hazing of pledges, retrieved @ stop hazing.org

3. John. J. Robison, a Pilgrim’s path. M. Evans and Co., Inc. New York, p. 129

4. Warren, D (2008) Doctrine of “mystery” Grace notes library, retrieved may, 19 2008 @ http://www.realtime.net

5. Odey, J (1993) Africa, the agony of a continent: Does liberation theology offer any solution, the encounter, Journal of African life and religion, Rome Vol. 2

6. Orukpe, T.  (1988). Secret cults and the law, National Concord newspaper, Thursday, December, Lagos Nigeria
 

About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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Modern man and scientific sophistications in the third millennium

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Read Time:30 Minute, 32 Second
PROVOCATIVES:
Series of articles have flooded medical, military and humanistic journals concerning the scientific breakthrough of the 21st century. These articles have not only arrested modern man’s attention but have provoked modern church authorities to speak out.
Believe it or not, the speed at which science and technology are moving in the 21st century calls for the attention of the public. The speed calls for ethical evaluation on the dangers and progress so far. The speed calls for moral assessment on the benefit to nature, man and his environment. These demands are relevant because scientific wonders are not only raising grave fear to modern man but generating millennial anxiety to the public. Millennial anxieties resulting from scientific breakthrough are pursued out of inhuman and horrific scientific inventions and discoveries. These millennial discoveries have become not only complex but sophisticated with latest improvements and refinements. Due to the countless negative impacts of these amazing refinements on human life, modern man is afraid that the third millennium otherwise our “aging age” will be crippled by these horrific discoveries. The fear of modern man goes beyond the benefits of these prodigies to nature. Her fear goes beyond how technology has failed man in so many ways and how it has failed to assist modern man to achieve his ultimate goal (Heaven) via science. The fear of modern man goes beyond the limits of space and time.  Reflecting on the Spatio-temporal dangers of scientific sophistication one cannot imagine what deepens modern man’s anxiety. Modern man is mandated to provide moral and ethical solutions to the dangers of technological sophistication. He is to realize that the sophisticated wizardry of science is not only profitable to consumers but destructive to providers as well. This is why any form of weakness in educating the masses that scientific wizardry is not indices of progress and development cannot be condoled. Modern man must therefore realize that though the benefits of science are incalculable, its impact presents unimaginable constraints to its beneficiaries. Modern man as beneficiary must realize that technology is a sword having two sharp edges. We can use it for good/productive and as well as bad/ destructive. In this reflection, the sporadic scientific discoveries of technology and modern man’s fear concerning its liberation are inter alia the subject matter of this discourse.

SOPHISTICATED SCIENTIFIC PRODIGIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Sophisticated prodigies otherwise technology has come to be pre-fixed with “hyper” –Hyper technology. I propose in this reflection to outline some basic prodigies of science and technology. To me, it would sound preposterous to make a critical analysis without first following some research modalities and assumptions. My first critical judgment centers on the defining roles of technology. As the name goes, technology according to Iroegbu (1994) implies the practical conversion of the instruments that promotes life and further research. It is both a means (instrument) to an end, and a human activity that posits those ends and works toward them with instruments. Technology is a radical evolution that enhances human mind, bodies and how those means confronts man and his environment. Sophisticated technologies however originated from human action (efficient cause) which works on the doneness (the given) of the universe (material cause), thereby producing technical things (formal cause) in the view of a better life, generally to enhance the material well being of human being (final cause) Arriving at the well-being of man, modern man with his millennium ingenuity has arrived at the noble ambition of Descartes, which is “to be the sole lord and possessor of nature.” It is by overcoming nature that scientific prodigies and all that it offers is achieved. These prodigies at a glance confronts nature and cause machine to exist in place of man. And when machines replace human strength and effort, Iroegbu concluded “spontaneity descends as artificiality reigns, rhythm vanishes, speed rules, living dies, stress dominates, and authenticity displaced by superficiality. And when artificiality takes over authenticity, modern man would experience the unpredictable that leaves human activity humiliating. In the “I” robot movie, we observed how humiliated human activities were overtaken by science, fiction and artificial fabrications. And when artificial fabrications take over from natural phenomenon, man becomes exposed to those wonders that destroy him. In this case, man is destroyed by the work of his hands. From one generation to another, man has simply become afraid of the wonders of his ingenuity. He is afraid of the growing sophistications of his brain. He is afraid that the products of his hand are driving his crazy and pushing him to the curve. He is afraid why his advancement in science is causing him become religiously opiumized, intellectually domesticated, psychologically basterdized, economically exploited, politically marginalized, morally thing-fied, socially fragmented, anthropologically pauperized, and as a matter of fact scientifically scared. By scientific sophistication, I mean that technology has lost its natural simplicity and has advanced into globally complexity. I mean that inventions and discoveries have jumped from natural simplicity to sophisticated prodigies. I mean that scientific discoveries are now at its latest improvements and refinements.

My logic remains that man’s urge for excitement of the latest refinements is behind the many sporadic scientific changes of our times. Scientific prodigies of our time are manifold. The production of nerve gas through the application of chemistry and the production of atomic weaponry via physics are biological and physical wonders of science. Alternative fuel care has overrun the ordinary usage of gas. Cars can be run on alternative fuel such as hydrogen, solar power or steam engine. Infect, any automobile powering of engine that does not involve petroleum is fast. Diesel powered cars can now run with little or no modification on 100% pure bio-diesel. Mileages can now be calculated in megawatts. Off-peak electricity production and transmission capacity could fuel 84 percent of the country’s 220 million vehicles if they are plug-in hybrid electrics. Technology as well has made video games hard to give up. Kids and adults stay glued to video games because the fun of playing actually is rooted in fulfilling their basic emotional and psychological needs. Besides video games, computer graphics, artificial intelligence, are now designing new high-tech medical tools to equip the operation room of the future, in an effort to help doctors treat patient more safely and effectively and allow them to perform to optimal capacity. Technology as a radical evolution promises and enhances human minds, bodies, and what it means to be human. Also, scientists have made emotional intelligence to matter more than human IQ. Visual experiences have taken over to real bargaining and shopping. Online visual experiences have improved consumers knowledge of a particular product. This market tactic back fires by creating a false sense of what the product’s real capabilities are. In Sci-Fi moves, robots are seen doing human bidding- a prove of concept that demonstrates that an individual can “order” a robot to move to specific locations and pick up specific objects merely by generating the proper brain waves that reflects the individual instructions. A classical example of Robotic intelligence is the killing and destruction of human infrastructures. The “I” robot of Will Smith is a testament of a monumental degree of Robotic influence on man. Scientists can now control the movement of a humanoid robot with signals from a human brain. The discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way has a cosmological red shift. In human history, Active-endocrinology, intra-fallopian transfer, artificial wombs, Uteruses, twin fusion and parthenogenesis are some biological sophistications that impact the sacredness of man.  Other biological sophistications by man are genetic engineering. All that we know today is that genetic modification is the basis of human evolution.

Genetic engineering is a horrific credit of biotechnological inventions. In Genetic engineering, man employs a technological program of experimenting with genes and elements that produce human species. The DNA makes a pale-ontological inquiry into the exact origin of human life. This scientific inquiry begins from the theory of DNA (Deoxyriba Neucleic Acid) to RNA (Related N.A to D.N.A in the synthesis of Protein). Beside the D.N.A are other sophistications that attempts to manufacture human lives. Today, babies are produced from the sperm and egg banks presently spreading around industrialized world. Astro-physical achievements like the invention of microscope, radar and other physical outreaches are few conquest of biotechnology. In Biotechnology, human genes are altered and this alteration affects not only animal socialization but human communities. Similar alternation affects human predispositions to become either good or bad. Hyper technology has not only made scientific research on human person more sophisticated, but has equally transformed life and challenged man to a radical constrain. Human embryo could now be bought and been preserved in refrigerators. High quality babies are now selected and reproduced via cloning. The ambition of cloning according to Iroegbu is to produce modern ‘Anapheims or a super race.’ In biological science, cloning means producing 4,6,12, 24, 48 persons that are the same simultaneously. In cloning, individuals are replaced exactly as their originals: Height, IQ, Complexion, Character, traits, and everything that human wisdom could imagine.  From the discovery of DNA to the cloning of various animals, the study of genetic engineering has overturned the way society view life in general. In addition, science has woefully failed to convince modern man if a cloned child could be mallible to chromosomal irregularities or inherited disorders such as brain abnormalities, behavioral dysfunction, inappropriate learning experiences and biological dysfunction. It has not been able to identify a cloned child cognitive status (average, mild, severe or profound). Studies have shown that products that are genetically engineered may cause severe negative effects on human society. This industry possesses the potentiality of leading modern man towards the unnatural selection of humans to possibly environmental disaster that put mankind in peril. Society along side with modern man will be in jeopardy since genetic engineering has the potentialities of being disastrous (Azete, 2008).

The dangers of cloning are manifold. The undoing’s of cloning is irreconcilable to the human mind. The fundamental danger here is that scientists call themselves the creator of man. Jeremiah Curran (1993) articulated that scientists insert a man-made-man between himself and the God fabricated man. I make bold to say that God-made man is the man born through a natural biological way, while the man-made man is the fabrication from the laboratory of a scientist through cloning and invitro -fertilization. Another danger of modern effort is that humanity heads towards atheism or the cataclysm of self-creation and human destruction. Without negative feelings, one could say that cloning has some moral and ethical consequences. An ethical danger in cloning is that it contradicts the ethical value for the respect of man as an individual. Also in hetro-logos artificial fertilization, modern man employs scientific techniques to obtain human conceptions artificially by the use of gametes coming from at least one of the married couples. Similar breakthrough includes Invitro- fertilization (I.V.F), and Embryo transfer (E.T). In reality, Invitro fertilization refers to the scientific process in which an egg is fertilized by sperm in a Petri dish rather than in the womb of a mother. Critics of biological advancement argue that a child conceived under a Petri dish cannot be as rational as a child conceived through a natural biological way.  Such child in my opinion would not match a natural child in IQ, wisdom and common sense. A child conceived through a Petri-dish could exhibit artificial intelligence, but would lack common sense in the everyday human activities and operations. This child in all standards would not be able to make a distinction between intelligent realities and common sense knowledge. Hetrologous artificial fertilization is contrary to the unity of marriage, the dignity of spouses and the unborn to be conceived through conjugal act.

Homo-logos artificial Insemination is another scientific prodigy of our time. In this type of scientific process, modern man obtains human conception through a transfer into the genital track of a woman of the sperm collected from her husband. As scientists would say, homologous artificial insemination within marriage is permitted except that it technically helps the conjugal act achieve its natural objectives. On another extreme, this technical means becomes morally illicit when it takes the place of conjugal act. In the 21st century, modern man has witnessed advancement in motherhood. This advancement is technically called surrogate motherhood. Surrogate motherhood is an advanced method of impregnating a woman with a man’s sperm with an understanding (arranged by contract) that the child would be given to the sperm donor and the child would be theirs legally. In surrogate motherhood, the borrowed mother carries and delivers the baby for the legal mother. At all times, a strong moral judgment is placed on surrogate motherhood. Here, human metamorphosis is interrupted and disintegrated. This process is an escape of biological identification of humans. One would logically say that the process is a biological destruction of elan vitae (life). The merit of biotechnology is allowing man to genetically engineer organisms against nature’s will. Nature is about the earth, animals, man and his environment. Modern man took it upon himself to domesticate animals such as dogs for hunting; turkey for family reunion and German dogs for security and sniffing of drugs and finally cattle for food. Biotechnology has changed human environment in which organism lives, by external conditioning. Through scientific conditioning, Modern man has found himself gripped by technology that allows him to genetically engineer organisms against nature’s will.  Manipulating the genes can take any forms to advance modern man’s yelling. Biotechnologists have made lasting contribution to sustain human development. But there is something still lacking when it comes to human progress and development. Plant biotechnologists are helping the entire world to grow more and better food for human consumption. They are also producing greater yields of crops used to produce bio-fuel to help meet modern man’s energy needs (Council for Biotechnology Information, 2007).

Today, modern man is witnessing some terrifying advancement in military prodigies. The history of military carnages in the 21st century has come a long way with myriad military advancements. Destruction at every combat has grown from minimum to maximum. Today, metals, bow, arrows swords and guns have been replaced by atomic bombs and nuclear energies. These sophisticated replacements have today widened the horizon of warfare to wear a dramatic shape thus sweeping human lives to an unprecedented proportion. The atomic bomb of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has presently overrun ordinary bombs to intensify modern carnages. Ballistic Scud missiles, warships and nuclear submarines are now the latest in both land and sea combats. “Fab Man” is the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki Japan on August, 1945. It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons to be used in warfare and was the third man-made nuclear explosion at that time.  The design of “Fat man” nuclear assembly was substantially the same as “the gadget” detonated at the trinity test in July 1945 (Hakim 1995). Trinity was a test of an implosion designing plutonium bomb. It was the first test of technology for a nuclear weapon. Mighty cities and human opponents are bombarded and leveled in minutes only by pressing one computerized button. The operation desert storm of Gulf crises of the 90’s otherwise “the mother of all gruesome wars” raised lots of fear concerning the growing military strength and sophistications. Air pollution in our time has been confirmed to be the most dangerous threat to man and the extinction of animal species. The consequences are observing our beautiful earth hurtling towards a warmer climate at a quickening pace. War has been confirmed a gruesome phenomenon to war mongers and war enemies. Also the ecological lives, vegetations and mineral resources of both the victor and vanquished in which inhabitants depended heavily will be incalculability damaged. It has been confirmed that air pollution is now the most dangerous threat to modern man and the extinction of animal species. In this case modern man is experiencing incalculable damage in animal and environmental species. The consequences are observing our beautiful earth destroyed. The effect of all these make global warming a reality of our time. It has been argued time without number that global warming is capable of destroying the ocean and the atlantics, and sea inhabitants. Citing accurate experience, beach erosion claimed an Alaskan home rendering owner and the city homeless. Authur Max (2007) confirmed that a climate report from earlier 2007 predicted that the sea levels would increase seven to 23 inches by 2100, spreading erosion and threatening coastlands without mercy.

The potential impact of air pollution, industrialization and global warming has become “so severe and crippling that only an urgent global action would help provide remedies. Because of these menace, environmental scientists describe China as one of leading world’s biggest polluters of air and “the most precious treasure of our planet.” This means that other industrialized nations need to respect the sacredness of man and reduce the speed of their technological navigation. The Japanese and the Soviet approach to technological transfer for economic development display far more differences than similarities (Sternheimer, 1981). Technologically speaking, China and the Japanese have been nicked- named the world’s junkyard of electronics. Jamie Choi, a campaigner with Greenpeace China in Beijing accounted that more than 1 million tons of e-waste has enabled Chinese technocrats to produce 5 million television sets, 4 million fidges, 5 million washing machines, 10 million mobile phones and 5 million personal computers. These efforts account for the acceleration of international trade and agreement in technology. This singular act also informs the present recall on tolls from China by the U.S and other industrial nations of the world. Manufacturers such as dell and Hewlett are two companies in the world that have immensely profited from e-waste recycling and mega market expansion. Bodeen (2007) and many others note that when one visit south eastern Chinese town regarded as the heartland of “e-waste” disposal, it shows that little has improved while it is not. Chinese environmentalist as well as the church has highlighted the dangers of Chinese e-waste nightmare. Accurate figures about shady and unregulated environmental mess is estimated at about 70 percent of the 20-50 million tons of electronic waste produced globally each year as they are dumped in China. The Chinese environmental protection Agency believes that it is cheaper to export e-waste than to dispose of it at home. When these cheap wastes are exported to China, and other third world countries the consequences become too much for ordinary citizens. Chinese migrant workers in an effort to dismantle much of the world’s junk waste of electronics smash picture tubes by hand to recover glass and electronic parts, releasing as much as 5.5 pounds of lead dust that is dangerous to health. Dust from the lead is capable of causing pulmonary disease or cancer to mine workers and people living outside the mine. Other health risks include throbbing, headache and metallic taste in the mouth. All these and many other related health crises are horrific consequences of e-waste. Long time health consequences can include kidney and nervous system breakdown weakling the immune system and precipitating any form of cancer. Chemicals including mercury, fluorine, barium, chromium, and cobalt causes skin rashes and respiratory problems. All these and many other factors make the production of toxics and e-waste both a credit and debit of modern ingenuity. In addition to modern ingenuity is the menacing disaster discovered in post-communist holocaust. These frightening discoveries were simply traumatic on human lives that the world and the church are now afraid to clean up the mess. A gallant question needs to be posed here. Would environmental humanist whose mission is to preserve nature’s gift to mankind fold her arms, pinch her nose and keep mute to these ungodly sophistications? Would the church marked with the insigna of human evangelization hide her feelings and allow scientific prodigies to destroy millennial humanity of God-created universe? My answer is no. My answer will remain no till the 22nd century.

FEARS AND MORAL IMPLICATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS

When the book of Genesis empowered man to have dominion over created things (Genesis 1:28), he never authorized him to have irrational mastery over nature. Man was not authorized to produce objects of his own end and destruction. He was not empowered to manufacture objects that frighten him. It is unfortunate that modern man has abused this scriptural injunction through his technical inventions and mastery. Abuses on human invention inform the fear of the church especially now the world is approaching the next millennium. By millennium fear, I mean awe and uneasy feelings of modern man. I mean anxiety for the safety of millennial humanity from scientific destruction and inventions. I have the feeling that modern man is afraid of mega-technology. Modern man is afraid of investions that destroy his sacredness. Modern man is afraid that he will not only conquer nature but also conquer the master of nature (Man). Modern man is afraid that he is producing something that has the capacity to place him at a distance from God. He is afraid that he has plunged himself into doubting God as alpha and omega. Mega technology discourages human spirituality. Advanced inventions maim human holiness. It contradicts the teachings of God by rendering human minds less human and turning human’s spirit more elemental and atomistic. In the viewpoint of Ehusani (1991), technologization robs man of creativity, affectivity, spontaneity, and responsibility, making him mere cog in the industrial mega-wheel, or turning him to what Yablonsky calls Rob paths. When man becomes robot, he is enmechinized. Enmechinization makes modern man mechanical that he no longer uses his God given brain. Enmechanization compels modern man to obey the dictates of machines to the extent that he becomes more cedonical than machines. The almighty computer otherwise artificial intelligence is the product of human mind. This product hardly provides man room to think independently. The almighty computer has denies man the opportunity to advance his writing skill. At all times, I hold this as my first empirical postulation that there is no logical relationship between bad hand writing and intelligence. What technology has done to modern man is to avail him the opportunity to type in word document, thus making it increasingly difficult for him to write legibly on paper (Ogbuja, 2007). In technology, modern man leaves thinking solely to computer with emerging sophisticated language and thought patterns.  The effect is that man’s rich perception and imagination that allows for simple mental and thinking operations is affected. Again, formal operational thinking, abstract thinking, deductive reasoning are destroyed. Here thinking is no longer bound by perception and human logic but something modern man has made to act quick.

All these have caused modern man to develop an imperfect ability to listen, think, write, spell or do arithmetic calculations. They have hampered human achievement and intellectual ability of modern man in different rational and mathematical ways. Seemingly, technology has caused modern man to develop third eye (contacts). Modern man can now drive fast automobiles with remotes that can start the engine from his bedroom. Media advertisements such as “kiss me,” “eat me,” “buy me,” “use me,” and “love me,” have over taken man’s natural order of love and passion. The moral implications of these media manipulations on man are incalculable. Also media expansion and whatever it offers have made man loose faith, thus launched him into “sin of pride.” In the wisdom of the philosopher, Gabriel Marcel “scientific discoveries are responsible why modern man has loose his sense of the sacred what the church calls “sin of pride.” Besides sin of pride, scientific mastery wages war against the profound meaning of human existence. From African moral standpoint, investions of the 21st century are not only unethical, but anti-human. Africans are of the opinion that mega technology damages human values and pave way to individualism that has become the bane of the civilized world. Mega technology also is responsible for the growth of Atheism, materialism, existentialism, humanism, pragmatism and relativism today. It is responsible while nations exploit another. Mega technology is responsible for the indices of what the mind could not imagine. Ratzinger (2001) the present pontiff once noted that technology dapples man’s primary and fundamental right to life, his dignity as a person who is endowed with the spiritual soul and with moral responsibility and who is called to a beatific communion with God.

 THE POSITION OF MODERN CHURCH IN MEGA ADVANCEMENT

The church irrespective of her fears and anxiety should engage in the moral examination of scientific methods by unveiling those scientific wonders that confronts modern man. Modern man would not have peace unless these moral examinations are conducted. It is the duty of the church therefore to re-establish a symbiotic bond between moral theology (church) and her sister science (technology). It is the responsibility of the church to caution scientists morally and neutrally so that through her advancements, and research, they would carry out their refinements with full recognition of the church magisterial. Scientists should channel their refinements to respect the dignity of man. They should anchor their findings to respect man as being created in the image and likeness of God. Scientific discoveries are to be placed at the service of modern man to enable him come closer to God. This is a millennium message to all scientists around the globe. This is a millennium message to readers of this reflection. Millennium messages of this kind require scientists and technocrats to desist from further destructive inventions, resist sophisticated temptations, insist on the improvement of human lives and persist only on rational inventions that assist millennium humanity. When scientists and technocrats put these caveat into consideration, especially in the approaching millennium, they would have contributed in no small measure towards exalting man in excelsis (Glory and happiness).

                Also, technology has made it possible to break into people’s laptops while they are sipping a latte surfing the net at favorite neighborhood wireless Café. The same advancement has made it possible for blogging, email and IM. Other merits of science is online forum and message boards, online shopping, online social networking/websites, web programming, downloads, web design and publishing. Modern man can now watch movies and music online. Another credit of modern invention is space shuttle, satellite, Apollo moon mission, home electricity, electrical troubleshooting, computer hardware, car electronics etc. Despites the above merits, war and accidents come to mind as apparent demerits of scientific advancement. New technologies are used for war, like nuclear weapons. Accidents happen like Chernobyl. Culture changes happens too fast as cars have caused pollution and obesity in industralized societies. Consumers are drawn increasingly indoors to the entertainment centers and are desensitized. Modernity has desensitized youths and created a world where the mind is being wasted as well as the body.

GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE

 The intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) has made little effort than modern man expected. One primary contribution of this panel was to make the phrase ‘global warming’ become familiar to many people as one of the most important environmental issues caused by science and technology. Climate change is growing very rapidly today. Climate change as a result of industrialization and scientific pollution is now a new phenomenon of our time. Goldemberg and colleague (1999) write that any large change to the average climate tends to bring stress off modern man.  Most importantly, extreme climate events and climate disasters which emphasis the importance of climate to our lives and which demonstrates to countries around the world their vulnerability to climate changes is now common experience to modern man.  A vulnerability enhanced by increasing demands on earth resources.  The following questions need to be posed here? Do all these point to a changing climate due to human activities? Do they provide solid evidence of global warming because of the increased carbon dioxide and other green house gases being emitted into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels? Tropical cyclones called hurricanes or typhoons, wind-storms, floods, tornadoes and droughts whose effects occur more slowly, but which probably are the most damaging disaster experienced by modern man would continue to be his contemporary nightmare. Despite these damaging experiences, modern and industrial nations continue to pollute our atmosphere. There are about eighty hurricanes and typhoons that have occurred around the tropical oceans each year. Hurricane GUSTAV and KATRINA has put inhabitants of Louisiana on a sudden stampede. Loss of lives and properties are always painful to recount. Similarly, hurricane Gilbert caused devastation on the Island of Jamaica and the coast of Mexico in 1988, Typhoon Mireille  hit Japan in 1991; Hurricane Andrew caused a great deal of damage in Florida and other regions of the southern United States in 1992; Hurricane Mitch caused great devastation  in Honduras and other countries in central America in 1998 (Gates, 1993). These are notable recent examples. However, Scientists know that windstorms or hurricanes are by no means the only weather and climate extremes that cause disaster that frighten modern man.  Like weather forecasters we watch on our televisions, their results are not entirely accurate, but can provide useful guidance to how far our beautiful earth is destroyed.

Global warming has been identified as one of the consequences of industrial and scientific exploration by modern man.  A question needs to be posed here. What causes global warming? Research shows that global warming results when Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun’s heat and causing the planets to erupt causing the largest U.S source of carbon dioxide pollution. Climate change is growing very rapidly and its growth is becoming a startling tradition to be accepted by modern man.  The destruction of green vegetation and man’s environment has become the cornerstone of modern man nightmare. Disruption of habitats such as corals reefs and alpine meadows could drive many planet and animal species to extinction.  Warmer sea surface temperature will fuel more intense hurricanes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Melting glaciers, early snowmelt and severe droughts will cause more dramatic water shortages in the American West (NRDC, 2008). Debates on the issue of human-induced climate change have grown at a rapidly increasing pace. That was why in his new documentary: An inconvenient truth, formal Vice president Al gore sounded global warning to technocrats and scientists around the globe. Al gore identified that the planet is heating up very fast. He sounded very convinced that Glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising, cloud forecasts are drying and wildlife is scrambling to keep pace. According to Al gore, it is clear that humans have caused most of the past century’s warming by releasing heart-trapping gases as we power our modern lives. He believes that Global warming is not just about science and that it is not just a political issue. It is really a moral issue (Al gore, 2006). Houghton (1997) adds that the domains of science and religion are simply complimentary ways of looking at the merits and demerits of science and technology. Like weather forecasts, their results will not be entirely accurate, but can provide modern man a vision into the future.

CONCLUSION:

The scientific basis of global warming is the likely impacts of climate change on human society. At all times, scientists argue that much of the assessment of climate change is focused on science, its impacts and response strategies to alleviate its effects on human lives.  Without pointing accusing fingers to any human department, technology has been found to be one pressing problem confronting modern man. Without any accusation of a sort, we know that modern man has brought this whole drama upon himself. In an effort to reach new and astonishing peak of scientific success, modern man has placed his life, neighbors and environment on an awe-inspiring threshold of failure and disappointment. He has succeeded in producing machines that think and the instruments that peer into the unfathomable ranges of interstellar space. Modern man has succeeded in making the unseen to appear, the unheard to be heard; the visually impaired to see and the emotionally unstable to become stable. He has succeeded in making the irrelevant relevant and the minor major and magnificent. He has built gigantic bridges to span the seas and gargantum buildings to kiss the skies. His airplanes and spaceships have dwarfed distance, placed time in chains, and carved highways through the stratosphere (Martin Luther, 1964). Modern man has learned to fly the air like birds and swim the sea like fish, but we have not learned the simple art of living together as brothers (Luther, 1964). This is a dazzling picture of modern man’s scientific and technological progress. But in spite the spectacular stride in science and technology, and still unlimited ones to come, something basic is missing in the life of modern man. There is a sort of poverty of the spirit which stands in glaring contrast to our scientific and technological abundance. The richer modern man becomes materially, the poorer he becomes morally and spiritually (Luther, 1964). The rescue of modern man must come from God and the church. Besides, scientists have no choice but to care for the earth solicitously as its ‘gardeners’ in a partnership with God (Houghton, 1997). My critics including scientists and avowed agnostics will find my declarations a little bit out of context. But I know that the domain of science and religion are simply complimentary ways of looking at the truth. Truth is hard to speak and only truth will save modern man from his technological romance.
 
References:     

  1.  Al gore (2008) Excerpt: An Inconvenient Truth: The planetary Emergency of Global warming and what we can do about.
  2.  Azete, B (2008) Preview of genetic engineering, Journal of science and technology
  3. Council for Biotechnology information (2007) How Biotechnology is helping increase Global food production, retrieved August 30 @http://www.whybiotech.com
  4. Curran, j (1993/94) Unpublished manuscript on Metaphysics, Academic session, St. Joseph Major seminary, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State.
  5.  Ehusani, G (1991), An Afro-Christian vision, Maryland: University press of America
  6. Gates, D.M (1993) Climate change and its Biological consequences, Sunderland Mass: Sinauer Association Inc
  7. Goldemberg, J (1999) Wolrd Energy Association: Energy and the challenge of sustainability, United  Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA) and World Energy Council (WEC), New York, Original Sources, Energy Balance of OECD Countries, Paris: International Energy Agency
  8. Hakim, J (1995) A history of U.S: War, Peace and all that Jazz, New York: Oxford University Press
  9. Houghton, T.J (1997) Global Warming: The complete Briefing, Third Edition, Cambridg
  10. Iroegbu, P (1994) Enwisdomization and African Philosophy, University press, Nigeria, P.50
  11. Martin, L K (1964) The quest for peace and justice, Nobel Committee of the Norwegian Parliament, Nobel laureate lecture
  12. Max, A (2007) U.N Panel offer drive warming forecast, science News, World news
  13. NRDC (2008) Global Warming: What it is, how it’s caused, and what needs to be done to stop it, Natural Resources defense council, retrieved September,2 2008 @ http://www.nrdc.org
  14. Ogbuja, G (2007) The fear of the church in scientific advancement in the 21st century, The Natchez democrats
  15. Ratzinger, J (2001) Induction on the respect for human life: On the dignity of procreation, no.3
  16. Sternheimer, S (1981) From Dependency to interdependency: Japan’s experience with technology trade with the West and the Soviet Union, the annals of the American Academy of Political and social science, Vol.458

 

CSN: 66005-2008-04-15

 

About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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We Refuse to Believe that the Bank of Justice is Bankrupt

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We all have better dreams for our children as much as they have for themselves, but are we leaving a better world for them to fulfill their dreams. How sure are we that the law is good enough to protect us and generations to come? Governments have over the years learnt over their mistakes whiles trying to protect its citizens. Many philosophies on how to govern a country has come to pass, the law making bodies have thought of and continue to make laws that protect us as humans and their efforts are applauded. However certain factors have always interfered in the dispensation of the law. Are we concern about how we treat people when they are not yet and yet convicted. Who will speak for the poor while he is being incriminated? In a civilized world as we have evolved into, race and gender inequality has still not found its solution.

 human being is dynamic and that makes it difficult to be handled. Nevertheless as much as possible we should do our best stand up against acts of wrongful accusations with the least clue we have. People will do anything to get away with the law especially when they are financially, socially and politically capable. This gives room for favoritism which is a big blow to justice. Favoritism works in such a way that we might not notice it. For instance if u were a judge an issue involving your good old friend came to you, you would not notice that the way you handled the case was in favor of your friend until you have really done it. In such cases I suggest that either redirect to case to a different person. What becomes more painful to me is when a religious or cultural practice cannot pass what I call “ the law test” what I mean by this is that, if a cultural practice was of any good for man then it should not tremble on the rights we have as humans. To inflict pain and terror and the worse killing innocent people (children and adults) by branding them as witches is a barbaric act and should be condemned. What are the religious or cultural practices u knows that tremble on the rights of humans and what have u done about it. I BELIEVE something has to be done and has to be done well.

The law finds it difficult to function well when it has to do with race. It’s good that strict measures have been put in place to abhor crimes with racial intent. How well do we put in our best when we are suppose to deal with someone of different race, are we objective enough? I believe the Government is not he only one responsible for justice. In fact we are the professors of justice ourselves. If only we will deal with people on individual basics rather than on general levels we will be doing ourselves good. It has even become more difficult to deal with racism as some researches have proven racism on the unconscious level and has assumed dimensions not noticed easily.

When the media will broadcast what they want for the public rather than what the public deserve then some racism is taking place. When a particular media house will want to show a bad side of one particular group of people than to show the other side, then some racism is being played.

If only we come to the understanding that our individual actions is significant to the collective conclusion of our actions. If only we can do away with nepotism, favoritism and the likes then we will make this world a better place to live. Remember to use your knowledge to better the life of the uneducated. Remember also that your goodwill action/s can go along way to bring about healing to the world. Never underestimate your capability. You deserve to be treated with respect, no matter the color of your skin, gender, location, intellectual ability or your deficiencies. I believe that if government does its part as well as we do, equilibrium will be achieved. Whenever we are face with things that will possibly impair justice, our response should always be that “we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt”

 

Joseph Abedi-Lartey

exploreghanaonline.com

About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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The bane of lone Nigerian mothers

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Read Time:4 Minute, 16 Second

The diversity of the Nigerian society is not only to be seen in terms of cultural or ethnic diversity or but also in family units.

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About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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Globalisation and the internationalization of education

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Read Time:23 Minute, 4 Second

Speech for the African Students’ Convention held at Mary ‘Yek Hall Sarawak on January 8th 2005.

Title: Issues related to globalization and the internationalization of education – building your personal capacity to contribute to your country of origin

I am speaking to you today as an educationalist who is Australian and Australian trained, in a college in Malaysia and my audience is substantially African from many parts of the African continent. It is not something that I would have imagined myself doing 10 or 20 years ago.

This scenario is part of a growing trend in education across the world, due to the internationalization and globalization of education and the development of market forces in education. It illustrates how the world is a much smaller place today. It illustrates how we are now moving around the globe in growing numbers and enrolling and working increasingly in diverse places. The impact that this has on the enculturation of all involved in this process shows that increasingly we are all broadening our cultural knowledge and, in the process, learning other ways of doing things.

It allows you, as young people from the African continent, to experience, at first hand, the cultural lives and the systems of a country, which has an historical background not uncommon with your own historical development as post colonial nations.

This surely must be a good thing for you all, especially when you return to your home countries to work alongside your fellow countrymen and women in the process of building and strengthening the services in your country of origin. You will take with you a perspective and experiences, which will broaden the responses you might make to challenges you will experience as you, begin your journeys in life
 
In reality we have more in common than you might imagine. Australia, Malaysia and the countries of Africa have grown out of colonial beginnings. We are all, despite the ages of the continents on which we live, members of quite young countries on the world stage.

Australia has become a successful developed country since federation in 1901; Malaysia has developed amazingly since her independence, in 1957 and increasingly in the last two decades. Your own countries have gained independence since the early 1960s with varying degrees of stability. You are all members of countries, which have great potential to develop into successful and modern countries. It is vital, too, that your development honours your cultural heritages and cultural mixes.
I was asked to talk to you about how you can best use your acquired knowledge and experience when you return to your countries of origin. This is a weighty challenge and one quite frankly I do not believe I am really qualified to meet. I am humbled that you might even ask me to do such a thing.

The provision of quality services, in education, health and other public areas that are expected as basic common rights in developed countries, is a burning issue for you here today.

To this assembled group of privileged youth from many countries across the African Continent, depending on the stage of growth and stability in your countries of origin, will fall the task of rebuilding, modernizing, restructuring and re-engineering, the infrastructures of your countries using the knowledge and skills you are acquiring here in the colleges and universities of Malaysia. You, with your peers, who are enrolled in universities and colleges in all parts of the world, are at a special place in time.
That you have been able to travel from your own country to gain an education, internationally, means that you are already more privileged than many of your friends and family back home. No doubt many of you also carry the heavy burden of expectation and hope of your families and your countries.

What is it that you will gain your journey here? What is it that you will be able to take home with you to your respective countries? Through my speech I hope to give you some “food” for thought in this area. I do not, I am afraid, have any answers for you.

  •  You are the ones who will have to use the skills and knowledge you gain to help build the futures of your countries.
  •  ?You are the ones who will have to face the challenges back home and work to overcome some huge challenges using your problem solving abilities, your creativity, the sweat of your brows and your dedicated hard work.

One Australian Prime Minister, Mr. Malcolm Fraser, admonished Australians some years ago that:

”Life wasn’t meant to be easy.” The full text of this quote by George Bernard Shaw is “Life wasn’t meant to be easy, but take courage child because it can be delightful.”

As you ponder your futures and take up the challenges of your lives these are admirable words to remember.
Recently in conversation with a young man on sabbatical from Oxford, I mentioned that I was preparing this speech. “You know, Dr Wee”, he said, “One of the great dilemmas I see, working in the academic field in the UK, is that many highly capable and intelligent
Africans choose not to go home to work in their fields but choose to stay in the UK or elsewhere. Thus they contribute to the “brain drain” from Africa itself.” That unsolicited observation is quite telling. If your brightest and most capable choose not to go back, then that certainly is a problem and one, which your governments should try to address. However, one must also put that decision of these highly educated men and women into context. The systems in many African countries are still geared and constrained by the postcolonial intentions of the systems left by earlier colonial administrations. This means that even if these young men and women choose to go back to their countries of origin, depending on their area of study or specialization, the opportunities for advancement or even of putting their specialized skills and knowledge to good use may be limited or non-existent. The number of universities and the ability to carry out research may be severely restricted for them.

Some years ago, when investigating change in education, we explored the notion that the current era of change in technology and computers could be likened to the change that swept Europe in the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution changed Europe almost over night from an agrarian society to an industrialized one with massive population movements from the countryside and farms to the factory towns and cities of Great Britain and Europe. With the Industrial Revolution came enormous and unparalleled change, unemployment and job diversification.

The impact of the computer age, explosion of knowledge and the impact of new technologies today are impacting on societies, globally, in ways that parallel the changes of the Industrial Revolution.. We were shown a graphic of a steamroller with the caption: “When confronted with the steamroller of change, one can choose to be part of the steamroller or part of the road.”
For you young people here today, this is a choice you can make when you return to your own countries to take up the challenge of rebuilding, restructuring and reengineering of your countries and to help your countries move forward into the future.
You can stand by, as part of the road, and watch the changes in the rest of the world pass you by or you can be part of the steamroller and play an active roll in bringing change and progress to your countries.
Many countries, in Africa, have difficult pasts often; it must be acknowledged, as a result of colonialisation and the difficulties encountered in the political fields in many African countries. The aftermath of independence and the history of many ex-colonial countries have seen troubled and difficult times especially in developing sustainable governments.

Many countries, in Africa, at this very moment are caught up in disasters, which are both manmade and environmental. Civil strife has resulted in economic stagnation and disintegration of services and infrastructure in many places. Religious wars, tribal disputes, political in fighting and public health and educational issues of enormous magnitude can be found at this very moment across the African continent as they are also found in many other parts of the world. The problem of HIV/AIDS is devastating in many areas and has severely affected the ability to maintain services because of the impact on families and trained personnel. As young men and women returning home you will have to help deal with and manage these problems. My advice to you?
•    Look around you with a critical eye as you travel around this country and others you may visit. Ask yourself: How might we adapt this model or this process in a similar system back home?
•    ?Be observant and ask questions – talk to people in positions of management, authority and leadership. Use your knowledge of the system in place in your home country and talk to people in similar positions here.
•    Learn as much as you can about systems and administrations. Ask questions and gain experience.

In other words, become like sponges and soak up as much as you can about the places around you so that you can integrate these experiences to help bring about change and improvement in your home countries.
With your newly acquired knowledge and the experience of living in another system and culture you will have the capacity to adapt old systems to work more efficiently and effectively and to apply new solutions and even use your own creativity and innovations when you return home.

There is much debate at present on how African states can best react to –providing services and education for all their population. Often infrastructure and services within larger urban areas are adequate but in rural areas the services are not so good if they exist at all. Many African states suffer from the legacies of colonial rule. The infrastructure that was established by the colonial rulers as they left Africa was in reality meant to maintain the status quo and intentions of past colonial policies. To maintain a small core elite and an education system which was primarily geared to giving the rest of the population sufficient education to work in low paid, agrarian jobs. There was little attempt at providing for or building up the economies of African countries to do anything other than to extract product from the land. This is the real dilemma for modern day African states. African countries have struggled to provide adequately for their people in education and other areas – much waste has occurred too. Conflict has crippled and devastated many countries in the region.

Of course, it is not as simplistic or as negative as I have painted. Many, many events have occurred on the African scene, which have conspired to hold many African countries back and hamper their development. There are many positives as well.
I believe that the process of sending many young men and women such as you out across the globe to far flung and different environments is an empowering gesture. It is widening your field of reference. You are seeing how other countries deal with their problems. You are seeing countries at many stages along the spectrum of development.
You are being taught by lecturers who have not necessarily worked only in places where resources are plentiful and solutions varied and expensive. Your lecturers have much to offer you of a practical and realistic range of experience, which can be applied without too much adjustment when you get home.
Of course you must know about innovative techniques and best practice and you must be taught the latest techniques. What your Malaysian experience offers you is access to lecturers and an environment, which is in the process of developing, where manpower is still used extensively and solutions and experience can be readily adapted to your home experience.

In preparing for this speech, I was overwhelmed by the wonderful boost to the image of African women in the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize for 2004 to Wangani Maathai in recognition primarily for her work on environmental issues in Kenya. Highly educated and articulate, she demonstrated her dedication and commitment to country through her untiring work for the Kenyan community. Surely an inspirational woman who through her award will inspire others in the African community to know that they can and will be recognised and acknowledged for their contributions and effort.

I found comfort, also, in a report I read by Daniel Sifuna who reported some positive trends and attempts in various countries across Africa, to develop alternative and innovative strategies to improve the educational provision and living standards in their countries. These programmes involved working with communities from the grass root level and finding solutions, which were unique to and relevant to the needs of the specific African communities.

In the Australian context, a problem we have is the poor standard of living and poor health of our indigenous aboriginal population. Our government has tried unsuccessfully to improve the lot of the indigenous aborigines through throwing large sums of money into countless schemes to improve housing, health and education – mostly with little success. Currently the Aborigines themselves at the grass root level are developing strategies to deal with their problems locally with increasing success.

Past experience has demonstrated that relying on building educational structures that mimic western systems and replicate the systems of the countries of the ex-colonial powers have not necessarily improved the lot of whole populations, in Africa. They have in fact perpetuated the academic and book based educational systems, which suit the industrialized nations of the former colonial masters but are not necessarily providing the answer in present day Africa. Hence my friend’s observations about your “brain drain” of talent.
Malaysia, as an ex-colonial country and a young nation, has developed a strong sense of national identity and communal spirit and through her strategic visions for the future has become a successful developing country. She is in the process of ensuring that her educational system caters for the needs of her own population and that her varied cultures are valued within the country. In the past 20 years, they have also sought to strengthen the use of the Malay language while recognising the value of using English to empower her students in the areas of Mathematics and Science and in international education. Malaysia is building her technical and industrial base in manufacturing and technology.

International scholars recognise that countries everywhere, and in particular Africa and developing countries, must develop their own research capacity in education, technology, health management, in fact all areas of public need to bridge the gap between policy and practice. Targeted and viable in-country research allows a country to develop relevant and meaningful solutions and approaches to common problems and difficulties.

  • ?How to provide educational opportunities and improve standards,
  • How to develop employment options and opportunities
  • How to provide healthcare and management
  • How to build awareness to deal with the havoc of HIV/AIDS.
  • How to build ICT capacity and competence without marginalizing large sectors of the country.

In Ghana and other African countries for instance, the provision of ICT as a positive government policy has tended to emphasize the divide between the “haves” and “havenots” in education which is primarily a disparity between the urban “haves” and the rural ‘have-nots”. Research indicates too that lack of technical support is a major problem as is the lack of infrastructure, generally, resources and qualified teaching staff. I am pleased to relate that many of you in this theatre are undertaking computer studies and will therefore be able to contribute meaningfully to your countries needs when you return home. Dr David Stasavage, from the London School of Economics and Political Science in a report on political systems and education in Africa argues the type of political system in place can positively improve standards and service provision. He argues that:

  • The processes of democracy have lead to increased spending on primary education in many parts of Africa
  • The reemergence of multiparty democracy has had significant impact on individual policy areas throughout Africa

The reasons are quite simply that when politicians have to gather support from constituents then they have to be more open to public opinion and more ready to address problems of basic need such as education and health.

Earlier this year, there was an APEC Summit on Education in Beijing. All twenty-one APEC leaders agreed that to fully participate in the 21st Century world, students must develop a common set of skills.

The common set of skills agreed to by the APEC leaders are that students must have:

1. Mastery of core knowledge in mathematics and science as well as a foreign language, which includes:

  • Conceptual comprehension, that is understanding, of the content knowledge being learnt;
  • Procedural competency to use concepts that is the “how to” for applying learnt conceptual knowledge
  • Problem solving ability to apply knowledge in a real-world, global context, both individually and as members of teams. i.e. it is critical that students can work cooperatively and jointly within a group or a team.

2. Personal responsibility and excitement about learning, so that students will acquire:

  • Life-long learning skills – it is understood that in this century students will train for and move through at least 3 job changes in their life-time and also face the prospect of increased leisure time in their later years as life expectancy increases across the globe.
  • A work ethic that encourages both independent learning and team participation – the ability to work in and participate effectively in teams will become increasing important and a required skill for employment.
  • Global citizenship through knowledge of the culture, language, and background of others – that you are listening to this speech highlights the growing importance of this point.
  • Skills to communicate clearly with others, both orally and in writing

– Employers rate this ability highly in fact more highly than paper qualifications once you are employed

3. Ability to use 21st Century tools (ICT) so that they can

  • Use appropriate technology to motivate learning and facilitate communication – rapid advances mean that new skills must be acquired constantly
  • Demonstrate computer literacy skills in real world situations – in this century those who are not computer literate will be discarded and marginalized in the employment stakes.

Many of these skills are skills, which you are acquiring through the courses you are undertaking here at INTI College and elsewhere. It is a list of skills, which you would all do well to know and understand. These skills will certainly help you as you move back into your countries of origin. These skills are important skills to be taught and focused on in your home countries.

I have spoken of some of the problems in educational provision, ICT management as well as the effects of postcolonial structures.

Which of these skills do I believe are most important?

  • The ability to solve problems and to construct new knowledge – these two are extremely powerful and critical abilities as they are the means to advancing your countries.
  • The ability to use 21st century tools as the challenges raised by rapid advances in information and communications technology (ICT) will mean the difference in being actively involved in this century or being mere by-standers watching helplessly from the side lines– remember the steamroller analogy?
  • Sensitivity to the culture and the context in which you live and work so that solutions you develop in your teams are relevant to the people you are living and working with and not merely externally imposed solutions that might be better suited to another culture and another context. Just because a scheme, an idea or a project worked very well in another area, or country, does not necessarily mean it will work in the situation in which you find yourself. This is where you need to be creative and innovative to adapt the useful to work in your particular setting.

Other areas of importance for you to consider are:

  • Recognizing the importance of collaborative research and partnerships between “insiders” and “outsiders – that is that where solutions are built through partnerships that objectivity must be employed to prevent vested interests “taking over” the decisions or conspiring to thwart development.
  • Building research and development capacity, in your countries, so that solutions are sensitive to local, social constructions of reality. In other words, if you have a problem, locally conducted research to understand the problem and engineered solutions based on the real needs of the community may be far more effective than attempted solutions that have worked well in overseas countries but which may only be partially relevant to the needs of your country. This requires investment and support for your own universities and colleges hopefully full of your most intelligent and smartest researchers
  • One important characteristic, which is not mentioned in the APEC list, is the importance of building capacity for leadership in our youth and at all levels of society. As part of your college life, you should use every opportunity to involve yourselves in leadership opportunities. It could be as grand as organizing something like this conference or it could be as small as organising a study group of your fellow students. Every opportunity no matter how small is building your capacity to lead and influence others when you arrive home full of enthusiasm and new knowledge to share with your communities.

Globally there is an understanding that rethinking is needed in educational provision. Findings by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) indicate that:

  • A transformation of schools on a dramatic scale will occur in the early years of the 21st century with the core business of schools, teaching and learning, being transformed.

It is predicted that 21st century schools are going to be quite different to the old, existing models of schools around in the globe. Perhaps this prediction provides an opportunity for African countries to develop innovative and flexible approaches to the provision of teaching and learning, in the coming years in the primary, secondary, technical and  tertiary areas. It may require no more than for some one to follow that famous quote from the film, “Dead Poets’ Society” to…………………………………… “Seize the day.” Instead of just providing schools and educational institutions along old and outdated models, the opportunity exists for a transformation of educational institutions to occur in line with modern and flexible approaches to educational provision. Even the developed world and supposed leaders in education are searching for the way forward at the present time.

Why must the lead come only from the West and established countries? There is no reason why African countries cannot develop innovative approaches, which could become models of excellence for others to follow. It requires only the will and imagination and hard work of some dedicated members of the community.

Think of the example of Wangani Maathai. The major reforms in educational decentralisation which have taken place in Australia, UK, Canada and many European countries in recent years had their humble beginnings in the smallest state in Australia, Tasmania, where two academics wrote the definitive book on self managed schools which provided the “bible” for others to use, worldwide. It is an amazing testament to the rapid dissemination of knowledge and the impact ideas can have quite quickly and rapidly. One of those authors went on to become the Dean of Education at The University of Melbourne. It is highly feasible that some bright and innovative thinkers from Africa could write the “bible” for the rest of us to follow in transforming educational provision or developing innovative solutions to major problems found in many countries during the 21st century. This is a very possible. Could this not be something I could be making a speech about 10 years from now? That some of you sitting here today might possibly be the ones “to seize the day” in building a bright and positive future for African countries. I hope so! The transformation of schools? – The transformation of knowledge? Jointly with the expansion and development of the information technology sectors? These are wonderful opportunities for African countries to grasp and to develop a new mindset to allow research conducted by your universities and your brightest scholars and students to explore ways to accommodate change based on the values, skills and knowledge that are relevant to the African environment. Instead of pushing ahead with systems and models which have proven to be unsuited and unsuccessful in the African environment, the opportunity exists to provide education and services which suit the particular needs of particular communities rather than continuing to provide education and services based on models that are no longer relevant, if indeed they ever were.

How does one do this? How does one encourage a community to be innovative, to develop creative solutions?
I believe one needs to look to educational strategies which:

  • Encourage creativity,
  • Encourage understanding and critical thinking in the curriculum.

Of course the basic skills of reading, writing, mathematics, science and technology are needed and are vitally important. Critical, too, are the skills of cognition and teaching and learning strategies which:

  • Encourage and allow learning for understanding,
  • Encourage students to explore, to be innovative and flexible in their thinking.
  • Develop and encourage the use of problem solving skills and abilities.

Of critical importance is the support of government, though, to construct new and viable ways of providing education and other services. It needs the collective cooperation of governments, the private sector and the encouragement of your most skilled workers and thinkers who can provide the vision for action. I wish to close my speech with this thought: Education is the most powerful gift that can be given to our youth. However, that education must be relevant and it must be useful for the 21st century. That education must build not only character but also strength of character. It must empower our youth to solve the problems of the future. It must train our youth to think and to think critically. It must teach our youth to be thinkers and problem solvers, to be creative and innovative and above all it must teach our youth to have persistence and resilience. For what use is knowledge and education if the character of the man is not honorable and just, is not strong and resourceful. Education must also allow our youth to delight in the world. Not just any education. But an education that will allow our students at all levels of performance and ability to “Seize the day.” And enjoy the wonders of our world, which is increasingly open to us all as part of the global and international community.
Let me leave you with this quotation as you ponder the complexities and the enormity of the tasks ahead of you. “Life wasn’t meant to be easy, but take courage child because it can be delightful.”

I have referred to selected works of Professor Daniel N. Sifuna, Jamil Salmi, and Dr David Stasavage in writing this speech. I have drawn also on my own educational knowledge and background in preparing this speech.

Dr Julie Wee

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About Post Author

Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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Effect of brain drain or skilled labour migration on economic development: a global perspective

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Read Time:21 Minute, 50 Second

This paper reviews the problem of brain drain or skill migration from developing countries mostly to industrialized countries. Some case studies are presented to illustrate some of the major problems facing Africans today in not being able to utilize optimally the human as well as material resources endowed to us by Almighty God to enable us render our expertise for the development of our continent Africa. This proposal includes the setting up of an International Academy of African Academics and Professionals in Diaspora (IAAPD). It is envisaged that IAAPD will have a Talent Bank which will be a database on African Academics and Professionals living and working inside African countries as well as outside with detailed information about the experts, their areas of expertise and products developed etc. Furthermore professional resource centres which will be land-based as well as cyberspace or virtual based will be setup made up of published information ( journals, technical reports) and specialized research equipment/facilities available in African countries where African Academics and Professionals can have access to for their use as well as for developing upcoming African Academics and Professionals. It is envisaged that African countries will create the enabling environment through entry visa and professional short visit regulations for African academics and professionals to use their Sabbaticals, annual vacations, study/research leave, professional short visits etc. academic/ professional staff exchange to go to other African countries to render their service.

 Introduction

The brain drain or skilled labour migration is not a recent phenomenon, but over the last few years it has caused much concern. Brain drain or skilled labour migration according to the United Nations definition is defined as a one way movement of highly skilled people from developing countries to the developed countries that only benefits the industrialized countries.

When a highly qualified professional chooses to leave his own country for another, he does so for one or several legitimate political or economic reasons: peace and security for himself and his family, job satisfaction, education, better pay and conditions, a higher standard of living, etc. Throughout history, countries and centres of academic excellence which offer these attractions have received the largest numbers of professional migrants and these have, in turn, made substantial contributions, not only to the economic growth of their host countries, but also to the scientific and technological advancement of humanity. The negative impact of brain drain has also been stressed in the New Growth literature (Haque and Galor, 1995). Most studies underline the positive impact of migrations on human capital formation, but when turning to the issue of the brain drain, observed that there is a detrimental growth effect. For example, (Haque and Kim 1995) found that "brain drain” reduces the growth rate of the effective human capital that remains in the economy and hence, generates a permanent reduction of per capita growth in the home country".
There is a strong consensus that deficiency in human capital is a major cause of African countries remaining poor. To render matters worse, when reasonable quantities of human capital are formed, quite a significant number are lost due to migration leakage. No wonder then that the concern has been to contain the leakage. In the words of a recent World Development Report: "Can something be done to stop the mass departure of trained workers from poorer countries?"(World Bank, 1995) .Returning professionals also need to find a place to work. Until a few years ago, the
Gambia did not have a university and had to spend a significant proportion of state funds to train and educate its professionals abroad. Those who became professors abroad could not return, as they had nowhere to ply their trade. In many other African countries, educational institutions are poorly funded and resourced, while there are few private sector jobs. Although governments promise to redress such shortcomings, they still spend very little on specialized areas such as science and technology. The continent's share of investment in research and development is only 0.5 per cent of the global total and it spends 0.8 per cent of the world total on scientific publications. Also, Africa desperately needs universities devoted primarily to research.
Africa's problems are further aggravated by the under-utilization of those skills it already possesses, notes UN Economic Commission for Africa Deputy Executive Secretary Lalla Ben Barka. "In every African country," she says, "there is a paradox of high rates of unemployment and under-employment among school leavers, including university graduates — even scientists and engineers."

Brain Drain or Migration of skilled labour

When people leave their countries of birth to other countries (migration), they gain many benefits including money, a better quality of life and a challenging environment in which they can thrive and fulfil their potential. Indeed in the West, actions are linked to results and hence work has purpose. All of these benefits emanate from the fact that the leading nations of the world such as the United States, Britain, Germany, Australia, Japan etc. have systems that function. The capitalist nations have separated God from the affairs of life and believe that individual freedom must reign. They are convinced that the earth and all its resources are for them and they struggle to dominate it, driven by insatiable greed and the belief that their ideas should be the reference point for all. The manifestation of such vision is concerted effort. Western nations, and especially the leading nations, work to be the best, as this is required to achieve the dominance they seek.
All properties and resources are held in trust by human beings, to be used only in accordance with their divinely ordained purposes. Rights of ownership and usufruct are distinct and separate, and while property rights are rigorously safeguarded there are important restrictions on the use of property.
Every member of society is entitled to benefit from a common resource to the extent of his need, so long as he does not violate, infringe, or obstruct 'the equal rights of other members. The user is also held accountable; in return for profiting from a renewable natural resource, he is obliged to maintain its value. If he causes its destruction, impairment, or degradation, he is held liable to the extent of repairing the damage, for he has violated the rights of every member of society.
To the extent that a common resource is not sufficiently abundant for everyone to use it freely without impinging on one another's rights, the dire rights of usufruct should be allocated according to the following considerations:
1) The degrees of need;
2) The impact on the resource,
3) Investment in the resource by way of work and capital;
4) Priority in time of the chain upon the use of the resource, and
5) proximity to the resource.

Some case stories on brain drains or skilled labour migration

"Immigration is always a gamble. But when it goes right, everyone wins," says the Economist. Yes, but… In the case of Africans immigration, the gamble has often gone wrong. International migration of skilled persons has assumed increased importance in recent years reflecting the impact of globalization, revival of growth in the world economy and the explosive growth in the information and communications technology
(ICT). A number of developed countries have liberalized their policies for the admission of highly skilled professionals.
While it is obviously not possible to prevent people from migrating to developed countries for better prospects in this era of globalization and democratic governance, the adverse impact of such movements on development and poverty in developing countries and policy options to mitigate such impacts merit serious attention

Brian Drain from Arab Nations

A report by the Arab League estimated that loses to the Arab nations as a result of the migration of Arab intellectuals to Western nations amounted to about $ 200 billion, noting that the Western states are the greatest beneficiary through hosting 450,000 Arabs with higher scientific qualifications. The report warned that the migration of Arab intellectuals and scientists is, but a new catastrophe which threatens the future of the Arab nations in the area of technological and scientific competition with Israel.
The report added that Israeli has won in the competition for scientific struggle with the Arab states through attracting European scientists of Jewish extraction and settling them inside Israel at a time when number of Arab scientists emigrants increased to foreign states. So far the Arab nations have failed to benefit from restoring back its scientists or to make use of them. It is worth noting that scientific investment in the Arab nations is low, and the tools of cooperation such as advanced communication and collaboration infrastructure are not advanced or even available in some states. Also, it is worth noting that the general environment prevailing in many Arab states is not attractive to those intellectuals who seek an open and transparent environment that provides for tangible and intangible issues such as free speech("www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/010227/2001022720.html")

 Brain drain from Africa reportedly costing $4 billion a year Africa, which has serious shortages of manpower, has been worst hit. It is said to have lost more than 60,000 professionals (doctors, university lecturers, engineers, surveyors, etc) between 1985 and 1990 and to have been losing an average of 20,000 annually ever since.
Every year, thousands of qualified doctors, lawyers, architects and other professionals leave Africa for the west. They are tempted by significantly higher wages and brighter prospects. There are more than 21,000 Nigerian doctors practicing in the United States alone. Meanwhile, Nigeria's own health system suffers a cruel lack of medical practitioners. Sixty percent of all Ghanaian doctors trained locally in the 1980s have left the country, according to the UNDP's 1992 Human Development report. In the Sudan, 17% of doctors in UK made up of more than four thousands specialist doctors and dentists, whilst 20% of university lecturers, 30% of engineers and 45% of surveyors have gone to work abroad. In Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa, for example, the flight of doctors has been so overwhelming that they have had to recruit hundreds of Cuban doctors to fill the gap.
The Kenya Medical Association (KMA) has said that only 600 doctors work in public hospitals out of more than 5000 registered doctors in the country. The rest either work abroad or in the private sector. The trends have been blamed for poor health services in Kenya, which has been ravaged by high rates of HIV infection and other communicable diseases. The chairman of the KMA, James Nyikal, urged the government to improve doctor's salaries.
Most Kenyan doctors dissatisfied with wages in Kenya move to the UK, Botswana, or South Africa. Opposition Member of Parliament, Paul Muite, has said that the UK recruits the most Kenyan medical personnel (The Lancet, 2001).
Although it is difficult to calculate the cost of an expatriate professional in terms of the nutrition, health care and education provided by households and the State, it is clear developing countries are losing colossal amounts of investment annually to the developed countries.
Based on UN Integrated Regional Information Networks, Africa is losing as much as US $4 billion a year through top professionals seeking better jobs abroad, according to research by a senior economist at Addis Ababa University.

Most adversely affected countries by the brain drain

The receiving countries are the winners while the sending countries are the losers. The receiving countries include the United States, Australia, UK, and West Germany. The sending countries include Nigeria, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Ghana.
Nigeria has more than 1,000,000 immigrants in the United States alone. In the United States, sixty-four percent of foreign-born Nigerians aged 25 and older have at least a bachelor degree. Forty-three (43) percent of foreign-born Africans living in the United
States have at least a bachelor degree. Nigerians and Africans are the most educated ethnic groups in the United States. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) notes that in Africa, the loss of medical doctors has been the most striking. At least 60 per cent of doctors trained in Ghana during the 1980s have left the country.
The phenomenon "is putting a huge strain on the continent," notes IOM Deputy Director- General Ndioro Ndiaye. To fill the gap created by the skills shortage, African countries spend an estimated $4 billion annually to employ about 100,000 non-African expatriates.
"It is high time programmes and policies are put in place to reverse the devastating effects of the brain drain," she says. The wars in Ethiopia, Sudan, Angola and Zaire contributed to the brain drain problem.

HOW CAN THE BRAIN DRAIN BE REVERSED?

When a highly qualified professional chooses to leave his own country for another, he/she does so for one or several reasons. Some of these reasons may be due to legitimate political or economic reasons: peace and security for himself and his family, job satisfaction, better pay and conditions, access to educational opportunities for self and or family, a better quality of life and a challenging environment in which they can thrive and fulfil their potential. Furthermore professionals who trained abroad in certain specialized areas will become redundant because they have no place to practice the expertise they have acquired, in their countries of origin, so they have no option but to stay abroad permanently. There are yet others who returned but because of the lack of systems at their homes, they prefer going back abroad. A number of developed countries have also liberalized their immigration policies for the admission of highly skilled professionals.
This brain drain can be reversed by setting a system and strategic short plan and long technological one. By recruiting and retaining them. Provision of recruitment incentives such relocation expenses, loans for housing and for starting businesses, salary supplement for the first few years.
For thousands of Africans living overseas and seeking ways to contribute to the development of the continent, initiatives aimed at staunching the outflow of professional expertise are offering new possibilities. Now, more than ever before, there exists "a major opportunity to transform the historical brain drain … into a new African 'brain trust'," notes Mr. John Sarpong of the Digital Diaspora Network Africa. He was among 130 heads of technology firms, non-profit organizations and UN agencies who launched the network in July 2002 as part of a resurgence of initiatives to reverse the loss of professional skills from Africa. Among those being targeted are scientists, medical doctors, engineers, university lecturers, economists, information technologists and other highly skilled people in short supply on the continent.
For the first time, the African Union has invited Africa's Diaspora to actively take part in the region's development. Heads of state who met for the African Union extraordinary summit in February 2002 agreed to amend the organization's charter to "encourage the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of the continent." This followed active lobbying by members of the Diaspora seeking recognition as agents for the continent's development.
With the absence of formal structures, African Diaspora groups have generally relied on ad-hoc, disparate and small-scale programmes to assist in the development of the continent. Despite this, many have been able to help build schools, hospitals and roads, run training programmes, supply books and computers to deprived schools and establish scholarships to assist students.
Some initiatives use the Internet to attract skilled workers — like the thousands of South African doctors living in Canada — and make it easier for them to provide services to patients back home. Other programmes hope to entice skilled professionals to actually return to Africa. The Kenya-based Research and Development Forum for Science-Led Development in
Africa (RANDFORUM) has been exploring ways to repatriate African professionals and intellectuals, as requested in 1999 by the Presidential Forum on the Management of Science and Technology in Africa, a grouping of African heads of state. That year, a taskforce led by a former Zambian president, Mr. Kenneth Kaunda, recommended that RANDFORUM and its sister organization, the African Foundation for Research and Development, identify overseas-based Africans interested in returning home to offer their skills. Another RANDFORUM project aims to relocate professionals from "distressed countries" — those that are faltering economically or politically, such as Liberia or Somalia — to where they can be productive. Rather than confine professionals and intellectuals from such countries to refugee camps, they are utilized elsewhere and returned once the situation in their countries normalizes.
The Nigerian National Universities Commission (NUC) in October 2004 launched the Nigerian Experts in Diaspora Scheme(NEADS) aimed at attracting Nigerian Academics and Professionals in Diaspora to contribute their quota to the development of Nigeria through short-term academic appointments. The major objectives of NEADS are to encourage the movement to Nigeria on a short-term basis of academics and experts of Nigeria origin for engagement in teaching research, and community service activities in the Nigerian University System. To tap from the huge human resource of Nigerian origin based within and outside the country but located for the purpose of work outside the country. To encourage healthy staff movement, interaction, and collaboration across and within Nigeria Universities and other sectors of education and national development. To encourage experts in industry to participate in teaching and research in Nigerian Universities. NIGERIAN RESEARCHERS, ACADEMICS & PROFESSIONALS ABROAD (NIG-RAPA) was setup by a group of Nigerians academics and professionals based in Malaysia with membership in the Asia- Pacific sub-region in 2003 with
 bjectives like improving the level of human resources development in Academia, R&D Institutions, and Industry. Promotion of ICT culture in Nigerian universities. Exchange information on learning resources and teaching aids, e.g. E-books, E-lecture notes, etc. Organising short courses and regular courses/seminars for academic staff and postgraduate students, and industrialists for the development of knowledge and skill.
Promote the establishment of visiting professorships, which will involve activities such as external examination, curriculum design, review and assessment, and delivering of lectures to students. Provide support for postgraduate studies including placement for funded research programmes, and possibly co-supervision. Exchange information on possible research collaborations, short term research fellowships, funded conferences, etc.
The South African Network of Skills Abroad (SANSA) is another example of efforts at reversing the brain drain. Through its website, it invites professional South Africans to sign up. It reports that at least 22,000 graduates from five major South African universities resident abroad remain in touch with the universities. SANSA estimates that about 60 per cent of the country's expatriate graduates are located in six countries, with Australia, the UK and the US accounting for more than half of them. Looking at the nature of their skills, the group estimates that about 30 per cent of the University of Cape
Town's contactable doctoral graduates are living overseas. They comprise significant proportions of the university's graduates in medicine, commerce, education and engineering, all areas in which South Africa has an acute shortage of skills.
Once professionals join SANSA, they may offer to train their South African counterparts or assist them to conduct research. They could facilitate business contacts and transmit information on research results not available in South Africa. SANSA members may also help to transfer technology to their home country, such as providing computers and software. This is already being done in other African countries. The Africast Foundation, for instance, collects and refurbishes "retired" computers in the US for use in schools and poor communities in Ghana.
African professionals tend to migrate to Western Europe and North America. Many are dissuaded from returning home by the economic and political crises that have bedeviled the continent over the last few decades. Failing economies, high unemployment rates, human rights abuses, armed conflict and the lack of adequate social services, such as health and education, are some of these factors. Until recently, African governments had expressed little concern about the loss of skilled people, while development lending agencies often compounded the problem by obliging recipient countries to hire foreign expatriates, as part of the conditions attached to those loans. Moreover, politicians often portrayed countrymen who opted to work and live abroad as unpatriotic. But the sharp rise in skilled emigration and the serious human resource constraints facing the continent have forced many to rethink their views. Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo is one of the leaders actively attempting to address the challenges of the brain drain. On his trips abroad, President Obasanjo often meets professionals and intellectuals who have left Nigeria to ask them how they can contribute to their country's development. President Obasanjo also is one of the architects of the continent's new development framework, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD).
The New Partnership calls for the establishment of a reliable, continental database to determine the magnitude of the problem and promote collaboration between Africans abroad and those at home. An important NEPAD priority is to develop Africa's human resources and reverse the brain drain. Under NEPAD, African leaders explicitly call for the creation of the "necessary political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the brain drain…."

SOME STRATEGIES FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF DRAIN ACROSS AFRICAN COUNTRIES

In order to create the enabling environment for African Academicians and Professionals, who will provide solutions to African countries in all fields of human endeavor like technology, science, law, commerce, as well as short to meet the challenges posed by globalization being imposed on the continent in particular and mankind in general some strategies are proposed to achieve these objectives.

1) Setting up a global organization to be known as “International Academy of African Academics and Professionals in Diaspora” (IAAPD). It is envisaged that IAAPD will have branches in all African countries. IAAPD will develop a website for all Africans in Diaspora worldwide which will contain some of the following information;

a) Talent Bank which will contain information about African Academics and Professionals, their location, and area of expertise etc.

b) Concise up to date curriculum vitae of African Academicians and Professionals available online with access based on permission being granted by the website manager or system administrator in consultation with the Academician or Professional.

c) Information about facilities e.g. research institutes/centres, specialized institutions like specialist hospitals, technology parks etc in African countries which can be made available for use by other African Academicians and Professionals.

2) Through cooperation and networking among African nations, there will be the urgent need to create the enabling environment for easy mobility of Academicians and Professionals from one nation to another to render their services to one another for the benefit and development Africa. These objectives can be achieved through some of the following actions:

i) Introduction of a common K-passport in all African countries which will have in built facilities like relaxed work permit, entry visa, and other immigration requirements for African Academicians and Professionals. This will encourage Brain Gain from the present Brain Drain.

ii) Relaxed entry visa, work permit etc. for ease of mobility of African Academics and Professionals. The possibility of granting short term passports of nations they will be going to render their services should also be looked into.

iii) Encouragement of migration of African Academics and Professionals to get long term temporary residency as well as permanent residency in other African nations whose proximity will enable them to render more effective service/ expertise to the continent

iv) African Academics and Professionals in Diaspora should be encouraged to go for their sabbaticals, study/research leave, professional short visit, annual vacations etc. There should be programs like academic staff/professional exchanges, external examiners, postgraduate training, receiving African students in their laboratories etc.

v) There should be access across all African nations for the use of their pooled resources like research institutes/centres, specialized institutions like specialist hospitals, technology parks, data banks, library resources etc.

vi) Provision of competitive salary and fringe benefits.

vii) Consultancy and applied research and technology development/transfer in public research institutes.

viii) Participating in training or research via the network and initiating research and commercialization of products.

ix) Facilitating business contacts.

x) Encourage Academics and Professionals to author books based on Islamic principles which will imply a paradigm shift, and publication of scholarly, professional, and application oriented papers in journals.

In conclusion, even though the brain drain is not a recent phenomenon, it has caused serious developmental problems in African countries over the last few years. The African continent is losing more skilled people every year. A project like IAAPD can be invaluable in recapturing some of the lost skills. However, we realize that the success of IAAPD depends on amongst other factors, the willingness and commitment of the expatriates, getting trusted relationships with political leaders etc. It is also important to go beyond just setting up the network, but ensuring that it is self-sustainable.

REFERENCES

1 Galor, O. and Tsiddon, D., 1997. The distribution of human capital and economic growth. Journal of Economic Growth 2 1, pp. 93–124).
2 Haque and Galor, 1995.
3 Haque, N.U. and Kim, S.-J., 1995. "Human capital flight": impact of migration on income and growth. IMF Staff Papers 42 3, pp. 577–607).
4 Lucas, R.E., 1988. On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics 22 3, pp. 3–42.).
5 Samuel Siringi The Lancet, Volume 358, Issue 9278, 28 July 2001, Page 307.
6 World Bank, 1995.World Development Report 1995. Oxford University Press, New York.).
7 ""www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/ Day/010227/2001022720.html""
 
This Paper was presented at the First African convention at INTI College Sarawak, Malaysia 2005
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Anthony Claret

Anthony-Claret is a software Engineer, entrepreneur and the founder of Codewit INC. Mr. Claret publishes and manages the content on Codewit Word News website and associated websites. He's a writer, IT Expert, great administrator, technology enthusiast, social media lover and all around digital guy.
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